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Goal Succession Definition | Goal Displacement Definition | Problems of Goal Formulation

Goal Succession Definition | Goal Displacement Definition | Problems of Goal Formulation

Goal Succession, Goal Displacement, and Problems of Goal Formulation.

Organizations should adapt its goal to the changes and development in the environment. Goal succession and goal displacement are necessary to replace and displace or change existing goals. In other words, both the goal succession and displacement refer to change in the current goal. because of different reasons. But context and reasons differ between goal succession and goal displacement.

1. Goal succession:

Goal succession is intentional changes in the current goal. Goal succession made generally after achieving current. If a current goal cannot be achieved even after hard work and proper use of resources, a new goal must be defined. It is also the condition of goal succession. For example, the current goal is 'increasing 20% sales in 2070', after achieving this goal, a new goal for 2071 must be determined for the meaningful existence of an organization. This is goal succession. Some important reasons for goal succession are;

a) Achievement of current goal:

Generally, goal succession takes place after the achievement of the current goal. Organizations establish and operate their activities to achieve goals. Therefore, without goals, there will be no meaning in the existence of an organization. Do, a new goal must be defined. For example, if we have currently a goal of 'increasing 30% markets share', after achieving this goal, we must set a new goal like 'increasing 20% markets share', it is goal succession.

b) Un achievement of a goal:

If the current goal is impossible to achieve even after hard work and proper utilization of resources, a current goal must be changed, and the goal succession takes place. If the original goal of 'reducing cost by 50%' is impossible to achieve, a new goal as 'reducing cost by 10%' may be determined as a new goal.

c) Environmental changes:

Environmental influences organization environment is ever-changing. Therefore, forecasting future changes may not be accurate. If sudden changes in the environment occur, an existing goal must be changed to adapt to the environment and goal succession takes place.

d) Scarcity of resources:
If currently available resources are not sufficient for achieving an existing goal and are impossible, an original goal must be changed. Goal succession takes place.

2. Goal displacement:

Goal displacement is also an act of setting a new goal by changing the current goal. But the conditions of changes differ between goal succession and goal displacement.

Goal displacement is an unintentional change in the existing goal. Goal displacement always takes place without achieving existing. Generally, goal succession is done because of the abstract and unclear original goals. There are different reasons for goal displacement. Some major reasons for goal displacement are as below,

a) Abstract and vague goal:

If the current goal is abstract, vague, unclear, or ambiguous, a new goal must be formulated in the place of the original goal. For example, a goal as 'achieving maximum profit' is an unclear goal. There is a question like how much profit? But, goal as 'achieving 10% profit' is a clear goal.

b) Attitude of employees:

Sometimes employees may totally be negative towards the current goal. If an employee's attitude is negative, there will not be chances of implementation and achievement of the current goal, and the goal must be changed.

c) Conflicting goal:

Sometimes, individuals (employees) may give over attention and emphasis on personal goals rather than organizational goals. Then, organizational goals conflict with individual goals, In such a situation, goal displacement takes place.

3. Problems of Goal Formulation.

Here, a problem refers to any complexities barriers and difficulties, etc. that take place in the proper formulation of goals. Managers should face various types of problems while formulating goals. Some major problems of goal formulation are as below,

1) Conflicting goals:

Some goals may conflict with each other. Goal conflict creates problems in goal setting. If predetermined goals conflict, a new goal should be formulated. It is one of the problems of goal formulation because goal formulation should contribute additional efforts in such a situation. It increases the cost burden also.

2) Managers reluctance:

Sometimes, managers may be reluctant and uninterested to establish goals because of a lack of proper knowledge, confidence, etc. Similarly, managers sometimes, want to be less responsible and accountable. Therefore, there will be a problem with the formulation of a proper goal.

3) Inappropriate focus:

If managers give too much emphasis on certain types of goals, there will be complexity in the formulation of other goals. Because, if we highlighted certain goals, other important goals may be in shadow. For Example, sometimes, managers may give over-emphasis on 'reducing cost' rather than 'improving employee satisfaction. But, in practice, at the same time, the goal of employee satisfaction may have higher importance for the effective implementation of plans and policies.

4) Lack of resources:

Human resources, physical resources, information resources, and financial resources are sufficiently required to accomplish tasks and achieve the goals properly. Because of a scarcity of resources, managers cannot formulate goals for attaining better results. It creates complexity as to how many results can we achieve in the future? Scarcity of resources is a problem of goal formulaƄon.

5) Change in the environment:

Rapidly changing environment causes complexities in goal formulation. Managers cannot make proper forecasting in the conditions of too much uncertainty. In such a condition, it is highly difficult to formulate a reasonable and proper goal. Therefore, rapid change in the environment and uncertainties can be problems of goal formulation.

6) Resistance of change:

Employees generally tend to resist change and new goals, because of lack of knowledge, poor communication, an old habit of work performance, feeling of insecurity in a job, feeling of losses in existing status, etc. It is another problem of goal formulation.

To reduce and eliminate this problem, there should be open indentation between management and employees. Proper training, education, orientation, etc. should be provided to employees.

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